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Printing Glossary

We realize there is a great deal to know when it comes to ordering printing. So to help you out, we’ve created this glossary of printing terms.

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Accordion fold:- A method of folding in which each fold opens in the opposite direction to its neighbor, giving an Accordion or pleated effect.
Against the Grain:- At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to with the grain. Also called across the grain and cross grain.
Air:- An amount of white space in a layout.
Align:- To line up typeset or other graphic material as specified, using a base or vertical line as the reference point.
Alteration:- Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given to the printer. The change could be in copy, specifications or both. Also called AA, author alteration and customer alteration.
Anti-aliasing:- The rendering of hard-edged objects so they blend smoothly into the background. A technique for merging object-oriented art into bitmaps.
Apron:- Additional white space allowed in the margins of text and illustrations when forming a foldout.
Aqueous Coating :- Coating in a water base and applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.
Art paper:- A smooth coated paper obtained by adding a coating of china clay compound on one or both sides of the paper.
Artwork:- A general term used to describe photographs, drawings, paintings, hand lettering, and the like prepared to illustrate printed matter.
Ascender:- Any part of a lower case letter extending above the x-height. For example, the upper half of the vertical in the letters b or h.
ASCII:- American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A standard format for representing digital information in 8-bit pieces.
ATM®:- Adobe® Type Manager® software, which makes type appear sharp and clear on-screen and in print.
Authors Alterations:- Changes made to the document by the author after the first proof.
Autoflow:- The flow of text automatically from one page to another, or one column to another.
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Back matter:- Also known as end matter  Banding A visible stair-stepping of shades in a gradient.
Backing up:- To print the second side of printed sheet. Also, to make a duplicate of a computer file as a precaution against losing the original.
Bank:- A lightweight writing paper.
Banner:- A large headline or title extending across the full page width.
Bar code:- A pattern of vertical lines of varying thickness identifying details of a product, conforming to the Universal Product Code (UPC).
Baseline:- The line on which the bases of capital letters sit.
Bezier curves:- In object-oriented programs, (such as Freehand, Illustrator, or Photoshop) a curve whose shape is defined by points set along its arc.
BF:- Abbreviation for bold face.
Bibliography:- List of publications providing reference material on a particular subject, usually included in the endmatter of a book.
Binding or Bindery:- A method of attaching pages together into a publication. These methods include: stitching, perfect binding, and coil binding.
BiPad Number:- Bipad numbers are unique numbers assigned to magazines and displayed in the magazine as UPC or barcodes. When a magazine is purchased at a retail store the barcode is scanned by clerk. The computer looks up the number in the database telling the cash register such information as magazine name, issue number, retail price, inventory available, and date magazine should be removed from their racks. A Bipad number is required to have a magazine barcode.
Bitmapped:- An image formed (or appearing to be formed) by a rectangular grid of pixels. The computer assigns a value to each pixel, from one bit of information (black or white), to as much as 24 or 30 bits per pixel for full color images. Also used to refer to an image that has a too low resolution or linescreen for the output resolution ("That image looks bitmapped."; line art scanned at 72dpi when it is to be printed at 2540dpi will be very coarsely bitmapped).
Bitmapped font:- A font made up of bitmapped letters, characterized by jagged edges, as opposed to the smooth edges of an outline font.
Blanket:- A sheet made of rexine or rubber that covers the impression cylinder of a press.
Blanket cylinder:- The cylinder via which the inked litho plate transfers the image to the paper. The cylinder is covered with a rubber sheet which prevents wear to the litho plate coming into contact with the paper.
Bleed:- Layout, type or pictures that extend 1/8" beyond the trim marks on a page. Illustrations that spread to the edge of the paper without margins are referred to as 'bled off'.
Blind emboss:- A raised impression made without using ink or foil.
Blind folio:- Page number counted for reference or identification but not printed on the page itself.
Blow up:- An enlargement, most frequently of a graphic image or photograph.
Blueline:- Prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives where all colors show as blue images on white paper. Because ‘blueline’ is a generic term for proofs made from a variety of materials having identical purposes and similar appearances, it may also be called a blackprint, blue, blueprint, brownline, brownprint, diazo, dyeline, ozalid, position proof, silverprint, Dylux and VanDyke.
Blurb:- A short description or commentary of a book or author on a book jacket.
Board:- Paper of more than 200gsm.
Body:- The main text of the work but not including headlines.
Bold type:- Type with a heavier darker appearance. Most typefaces have a bold face.
Bond:- A sized finished writing paper of 50gsm or more. Can also be used for printing upon.
Border:- A continuous decorative design or rule surrounding the matter on the page.
Box:- A section of text marked off by rules or white space and presented separately from the main text and illustrations. Longer boxed sections in magazines are sometimes referred to as sidebars.
Bronzing:- An effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing with a metallic powder.
Bullet:- A large dot preceding text to add emphasis.
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C2S/C1S:- Coated 2 Sides refers to paper that is shiny on both sides. C2S is the paper used by most magazines. C1S is the kind of paper typically used on some nice post cards.
Calibration bars:- On a negative, proof, or printed piece, a strip of tones used to check printing quality.
Caliper:- The thickness of sheet of paper or board expressed in microns (millionths of a meter). Also the name of the tool used to make the measurement.
Camera ready:- Artwork or pasted up material that is ready for reproduction.
Cap line:- An imaginary line across the top of capital letters. The distance from the cap line to the baseline is the cap size.
Caps:- (or "all caps") an abbreviation for capital letters.
Caps and small caps:- A style of type that shows capital letters used in the normal way while the body copy is set in capital letters which are of a slightly smaller size.
Caption:- Also called a cutline. The line or lines of text that refer to information identifying a picture or illustration.
Carbonless:- Paper coated with chemicals and dye which will produce copies without carbon paper. Also referred to as NCR (No Carbon Required).
Case Bind:- To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.
Cast coated:- Art paper with an exceptionally glossy coated finish usually on one side only.
Chalking:- A powdering effect left on the surface of the paper after the ink has failed to dry satisfactorily due to a fault in printing.
Character Identifiers (CID):- A new type of font that has a simplified internal structure and a compact file size, resulting in improved performance for large character sets such as Chinese, Cyrillic, Japanese, and Korean.
Cheshire Labeling::- The industry term for “Peal & Stick” style labels used in the mailing process.
Choke:- A method of altering the thickness of a shape by overexposure in processing or by means of a built-in option in some computer applications.
Clip Art:- Copyright free photos or drawings.
CMYK:- Cyan, yellow, magenta, black. The subtractive primaries, or process colors, used in color printing. Black (K) is usually added to enhance color and to print a true black. See four color process.
Coated Paper:- Coated paper is paper that has a shiny surface (has an enamel coating). When printing on coated paper the ink sits on top of the paper and doesn’t soak in much. This produces a cleaner, sharper image, however the coating process makes paper more expensive to make and might make it unrecyclable.
Cold Set:- Cold set printing is printing that does not use heat to dry freshly printed ink. Because ink takes a certain amount of time to dry, uncoated papers are often used to speed the drying process.
Collate:- To gather separate sections or leaves of a book together in the correct order for binding.
Color Control Bar:- Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain. Also called color bar, color guide and standard offset color bar.
Color correction:- The process of adjusting an image to compensate for scanner deficiencies or for the characteristics of the output device.
Color Management System (CMS):- Software that allows applications and printer drivers to access information about the color characteristics of monitors, printers, and scanners. The Color Management System uses the color information to provide accurate and consistent color to the output device.
Color proof:- A representation of what the final printed composition will look like. The resolution and quality of different types of color can vary greatly.
Color transparency:- A photographic image transparent film used as artwork. 35 mm, 4"x5" and 8"x10" formats are commonly used.
Column rule:- A light faced vertical rule used to separate columns of type.
Computer-to-Plate (CTP):- A technology that allows for the delivery of digital data directly to a plate for printing. CTP efficiency eliminates conventional films and stripping to significantly reduce prepress materials and costs, and allow for significant productivity benefits over other commercial printing solutions.
Condensed:- A style of typeface in which the characters have a vertically elongated appearance.
Continuous tone:- An image in which the subject has continuous shades of color or gray without being broken up by dots. Continuous tones cannot be reproduced in that form for printing but must be screened to translate the image into dots.
Contrast:- The relationship between the lightest and darkest areas of an image.
Copy:- The text to be printed.
Creep:- Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.
Crop marks:- Lines printed showing the dimensions of the final printed page. These marks are used for final trimming.
Cropping:- The elimination of parts of a photograph or other original that are not required to be printed. Cropping allows the remaining parts of the image to be enlarged to fill the space.
Crossover:- Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.
CSR::- Short for Customer Service Representative. Once your magazine is directed to a specific press you will be assigned a CSR to follow your job and will be the person that always knows its status.
Cure:- To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
Cursive:- Used to describe typefaces that resemble written script.
Cut flush:- A method of trimming a book after the cover has been attached to the pages.
Cutline:- Also called a caption. The line or lines of text that refer to information identifying a picture or illustration.
Cutout:- A halftone where the background has been removed to produce a silhouette.
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Dagger and double dagger:- Symbols used mainly as reference marks for footnotes.
Dampening:- A necessary process in lithography of dampening the printing plate to prevent ink from spreading.
Dash:- Sometimes called an "em" dash. A horizontal rule used for punctuation.
Deboss:- To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface. Also called tool.
Densitometer:- A device sensitive to the density of light transmitted or reflected by paper or film. Used to check the accuracy, quality, and consistency of output.
Density:- The degree of opacity of a photographic image on paper or film.
Descender:- Any part of a lower case letter that extends below the x-height, as in the case of y and j.
Device-Independent Color (DIC):- Color that is independent of the color characteristics of any particular device used in the printing process. Device-independent color allows colors to be predictably and accurately matched among various printing devices.
Die:- A hardened steel engraving stamp used to print an inked image. Used in the production of good quality letter headings.
Die Cutting:- The process of using sharp steel rules to cut special shapes into printed sheets.
Digital:- Files for printing that are produced on the computer.
Direct Digital Printing:- Commercial-quality printing in which electronic source files are processed directly on the printing press or printing system, rather than through analog steps such as film imagesetting and platemaking. Direct digital printing systems may be based on lithographic offset technology or laser/toner technology. Front-end RIPs and servers are integrated components of these printing systems.
Direct-to-Plate Printing:- Imaging directly to the plate material used in offset lithographic printing. The traditional offset printing process includes generating film (typically from an imagesetter today), "burning plates" by exposing the aluminum or poly printing plates with the film, and mounting the resulting plates on offset presses. Direct-to-plate printing eliminates the film imaging step by imaging directly on the plate material.
Display type:- Larger type used for headings etc. Normally about 18 point or larger.
Distributed Printing:- Printing directly to printers (imagesetters or direct digital presses) that are located far from the operator's workstation. May include multiple destinations for a single job. Often associated with on-demand and short-run printing.
Dithering:- The process of specifying color to adjacent pixels in order to simulate a third color in a bitmapped image. This technique is generally used when a full range of colors is not available.
Dmax:- The highest level of density on a film negative.
Dot gain:- A printing defect in which dots print larger than intended, causing darker colors or tones; due to the spreading of ink on stock. The more absorbent the stock, the more dot gain. Can vary by type of ink as well.
Dots Per Inch (DPI):- A measure of the resolution of a device. The higher the number, the sharper the type and images.
Double Bump:- To print a single image twice so it has two layers of ink.
Double page spread:- Two facing pages of newspaper or magazine where the textual material on the left hand side continues across to the right hand side. Abbreviated to DPS.
Downloadable fonts:- Typefaces which can be stored on a disk and then downloaded to the printer when required for printing. These are, by definition, bit-mapped fonts and, therefore, fixed in size and style.
DPI:- Considered as “dots per square inch,” a measure of output resolution in relationship to printers, imagesetters and monitors.
Drawn on:- A method of binding a paper cover to a book by drawing the cover on and gluing to the back of the book.
Drop cap:- A large initial letter at the start of the text that drops into the line or lines of text below.
Dry transfer (lettering):- Characters, drawings, etc., that can be transferred to the artwork by rubbing them off the back of the transfer sheet. Best known is Letraset.
DTP or D2P:- Short for Direct to Plate. A modern printing process that allows artwork to be converted in the computer to a form that bypasses the film stage and goes directly to the printing press (plate). This process saves time, produces a cleaner image and eliminates expensive film charges.
Dummy:- A sketch of a page showing the position of text and illustrations and giving general instructions.
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Elliptical dot:- A type of halftone screen dot with an elliptical rather than circular shape, which sometimes produces better tonal gradations.
Em dash:- A dash used in punctuation the length of one em.
Em space:- A fixed space equal in size to the chosen point size. It gets its name from the letter M which originally was as wide as the type size.
Emboss:- To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface. Also called cameo and tool.
Embossing:- A process performed after printing to stamp a raised (or depressed) image into the surface of paper, using engraved metal embossing dies, extreme pressure, and heat. Embossing styles include blind, deboss and foil-embossed.
Emulsion:- The coating of light-sensitive material on a piece of film.
En dash:- A dash approximately half the width of an em dash.
En space:- A fixed space that is half as wide as an em space.
End papers:- The four page leaves at the front and end of a book which are pasted to the insides of the front and back covers (boards).
EPS:- Encapsulated PostScript. A file format used to transfer PostScript image information from one program to another. The preferred file format for saving images, as it is resolution independent, as opposed to TIFF.
Estimate:- A price provided to a customer, based on the specifications outlined on the estimate form. It is normally sent prior to entry of an order and prices may change if the order specifications are not the same as the estimate specifications.
Expanded type:- A typeface with a slightly wider body giving a flatter appearance.
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Face:- An abbreviation for typeface referring to a family in a given style.
Facing Pages(Reader’s Spreads):- Facing pages are pages built in the computer the way the reader will view the magazine: cover, then pages 2 and 3 together facing each other, 4 and 5 facing each other, etc.
Filler:- Extra material used to complete a column or page, usually of little importance.
Film:- After artwork has been completed, a photograph is taken of it. The resulting film negative is used to transfer the art into a format (plate) that is used by a printing press. A modern printing breakthrough allows artwork to be converted in the computer to a format that bypasses the film stage and goes “direct to plate”. This process saves time and film costs.
Film Recorders:- Devices that generate film negatives and positives for slides and other photographic needs.
Final Proof:- Once called a "Blueline" this is now a digitally generated full color proof.
Flag:- The designed title of a newspaper as it appears at the top of page one.
Flood:- To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish. flooding with ink is also called painting the sheet.
Floppy disk:- Once popular and now seldom used, it is recommended that all materials be burned to a CD.
Flush left:- Copy aligned along the left margin.
Flush right:- Copy aligned along the right margin.
Flyer:- An inexpensively produced circular used for promotional distribution.
Flyleaf:- Leaf, at the front and back of a case bound book that is the one side of the end paper not glued to the case.
Foil Stamping:- The process of applying a thin film of colored foil to paper for decorative purposes.
Foldout:- Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart. Also called gatefold and pullout.
Folio:- The actual page number in a publication.
Fonts:- Typefaces in different styles that give documents personality.
Four color process:- The four basic colors of ink (CMYK--yellow, magenta, cyan, and black) which reproduce full-color photographs or art.
French fold:- A sheet which has been printed on one side only and then folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.
FTP:- Stands for File Transfer Protocol. It is a method of sending files via computer modem. If you send your magazine using this method we will give you the specific login information. Modern Litho/Brown Printing use an FTP called Insite.
Fugitive Glue:- Fugitive glue, also called credit card glue, E-z-release glue, or (colloquially) booger glue, snot glue, or gooey glue, is a low-tack adhesive that produces a removable, non-permanent joint. There is only a minimal residue of the other material remaining on the glue, and minimal amount of damage caused to the separated surfaces. Fugitive glues are frequently used in marketing, where some object – product sample or a return envelope – is glued to another, usually paper, object – a mailing envelope or a magazine. They tend to perform best on smooth, non-porous surfaces.
Full measure:- A line of type set to the entire line length.
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Gatefold:- An oversize page where both sides fold into the gutter in overlapping layers. Used to accommodate maps into books.
Gathering:- The operation of inserting the printed pages, sections or signatures of a book in the correct order for binding.
Gothic:- Typefaces with no serifs and broad even strokes.
Gradated screen:- A smooth transition between black and white, one color and another, or color and the lack of it.
Graphical Display Interface (GDI):- The display language interface for Microsoft Windows systems. GDI printers are compatible only with Windows systems and do not offer the performance and features available with Adobe PostScript or Adobe PrintGear® printers.
Gravure:- Method of printing using metal cylinders etched with millions of tiny wells that hold ink.
Grayscale:- A range of luminance values for evaluating shading through white to black. Also, a term used when referring to a black and white photograph.
Greeking:- Gibberish or gray areas to simulate lines of text.
Grid:- A systematic division of a page into areas to enable designers to ensure consistency. The grid acts as a measuring guide and shows text, illustrations and trim sizes.
Grind Off:- Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding.
Gripper:- Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheet fed press, thus going first through the press. Also called feeding edge and leading edge.
Guard:- A narrow strip of paper or linen pasted to a single leaf to allow sewing into a section for binding.
Gutter:- The central blank area between left and right pages.
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Hairline rule:- The thinnest rule that can be printed. Hairline rules do not print well. Half-point rules are strongly recommended.
Halftone:- An illustration reproduced by breaking down the original tone into a pattern of dots of varying size. Light areas have small dots and darker areas or shadows have larger dots. Simulating a continuous tone photograph using dots.
Hanging punctuation:- Punctuation that is allowed to fall outside the margins instead of staying within the measure of the text. This is now seldom used in desktop publishing.
Hardback:- A case bound book with a separate stiff board cover.
Head:- The larger bold text at the top of a page.
Heat Set:- Heat set printing is printing what uses a heater to dry freshly printed ink. Drying the ink means very finely detailed images can be printed at higher printing speeds.
Helvetica:- A sans serif typeface.
Hickies:- A dust particle sticking to the printing plate or blanket which appears on the printed sheet as a dark spot surrounded by an halo.
Highlight:- The lightest area in a photograph or illustration.
Hinged Cover:- Perfect bound cover scored 1/8 inch (3mm) from the spine so it folds at the hinge instead of, along the edge of the spine.
House stock:- Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a variety of printing jobs. Also called floor sheet.
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Icons:- Pictorial images used on screen to indicate utility functions, files, folders or applications software. The icons are generally activated by an on-screen pointer controlled by a mouse or trackball.
Imagesetters/Typesetters:- Devices that generate the highest resolution paper, plate, and film output for professional publishing needs.
Imposition:- The process of arranging individual pages on a form in preparation for the printing press so that the pages will be in proper sequence after printing, folding, and binding.
Impression:- (1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through a printing unit. (2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press.
Imprint:- The name and place of the publisher and printer required by law if a publication is to be published. Sometimes accompanied by codes indicating the quantity printed, month/year of printing and an internal control number.
Indicia:- The indicia is a special “postage stamp” that tells the Post office the method that your magazine is being mailed and who to bill for that mailing. It is printed either right on the magazine, on its mailing label or to the outside of the package the magazine rides in. There are very strict requirements about indicia content, placement locations, size and design.
Insert:- An instruction to the printer for the inclusion of additional copy.
Interface:- The ways a printer may be connected to a computer or network. Adobe PostScript printers support a wide variety of interfaces, including serial, parallel, AppleTalk, and Ethernet.
International Color Consortium (ICC):- A group of companies chartered to develop, use, and promote cross-platform standards so that applications and devices can exchange color data without ambiguity. Founding members include Adobe, Agfa, Apple, FOGRA, Kodak, Microsoft, Silicon Graphics, Sun, and Taligent.
Interpreter:- The Adobe PostScript Raster Image Processor (RIP) that translates the instructions in a PostScript language file sent from the printer driver.
ISBN:- International Standard Book Number. A reference number given to every published work. Usually found on the back of the title page.
Italic:- Type with sloping letters.
Ivory board:- A smooth high white board used for business cards etc.
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Justify:- The alignment of text along a margin or both margins. This is achieved by adjusting the spacing between the words and characters as necessary so that each line of text finishes at the same point.
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Keep standing:- To hold type or plates ready for reprints.
Kerning:- The adjustment of spacing between certain letter pairs, A and V for example, to obtain a more pleasing appearance.
Keyline:- An outline drawn or set on artwork showing the size and position of an illustration or halftone.
Kilobyte (K, KB):- 1024 bytes, a binary 1,000.
Knockout:- A shape or object printed by eliminating (knocking out) all background colors. Contrast to overprinting.
Kraft paper:- A tough brown paper used for packing.
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Laid:- Paper with a watermark pattern showing the wire marks used in the paper making process. Usually used for high quality stationery.
Laminate:- A thin transparent plastic coating applied to paper or board to provide protection and give it a glossy finish.
LAN:- Local Area Network. A group of connected computers in a relatively small area that share access to printers and other peripheral devices.
Landscape:- Work in which the width used is greater than the height. Also used to indicate the orientation of tables or illustrations which are printed 'sideways'. See portrait.
Laser printer (see also Page printer):- A high quality image printing system using a laser beam to produce an image on a photosensitive drum. The image is transferred on to paper by a conventional xerographic printing process.
Lateral reversal:- A positive or negative image transposed from left to right as in a mirror reflection of the original.
Layout:- The final composed pages lead or leading Space added between lines of type to space out text and provide visual separation of the lines. Measured in points or fractions thereof. Named after the strips of lead which used to be inserted between lines of metal type.
Legend:- The descriptive matter printed below an illustration, mostly referred to as a cutline or caption. Also an explanation of signs or symbols used in timetables or maps.
Letter Fold:- Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold.
Letterpress:- A relief printing process in which a raised image is inked to produce an impression; the impression is then transferred by placing paper against image and applying pressure.
Letterset:- A printing process combining offset printing with a letterpress relief printing plate.
Letterspacing:- The addition of space between the letters of words to increase the line-length to a required width or to improve the appearance of a line.
Ligature:- Letters which are joined together as a single unit of type such as oe and fi.
Lightface:- Type having finer strokes than the medium typeface. Not used as frequently as medium.
Linen tester:- A magnifying glass designed for checking the dot image of a halftone.
Lines per inch (lpi):- A measure of the frequency of a halftone screen (usually ranging from 55-200). 150 lpi is the standard printing resolution. Fewer lines per inch are often used for printing on newsprint or low quality paper.
Linescreen:- Images on paper are made by printing tiny dots of ink. These dots fool the eye into thinking there is a photo. Line screen is the measurement of these dots in terms of lines per inch. 150 line has 150 lines (or rows of dots) every inch. The higher the number, the more detail an image can have but the more difficult it is to print. Printing standards are 150 line for coated paper, 100 for uncoated and 85 for newspaper. A real world example: use a magnifying glass to look at a newspaper photo or any printed image.
Logo:- Short for logotype. A word or combination of letters set as a single unit. Also used to denote a specially styled company name designed as part of a corporate image.
Loose leaf:- A method of binding which allows the insertion and removal of pages for continuous updating.
Loupe:- Lens built into a small stand. Used to inspect copy, film, proofs, plates and printing. Also called glass and linen tester.
Lower case:- The small letters in a font of type.
Luminosity:- A value corresponding to the brightness of color.
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Machine glazed (MG):- Paper with a high gloss finish on one side only.
Macro:- A series of instructions which would normally be issued one at a time on the keyboard to control a program. A macro facility allows them to be stored and issued automatically by a single keystroke.
Magnetic ink:- A magnetized ink that can be read both by humans and by electronic machines. Used in check printing.
Make ready:- (1) All activities required to prepare a press or other machine to function for a specific printing or bindery job, as compared to production run. Also called setup. (2) Paper used in the make ready process at any stage in production. Make ready paper is part of waste or spoilage.
Manilla:- A tough brown paper used to produce stationery and wrapping paper.
Manuscript (MS):- The original written or typewritten work of an author submitted for publication.
Margins:- The non-printing areas of page.
Mask:- Traditionally, opaque material or masking tape used to block-off an area of the artwork; the inactive area of a bitmapped image which will not respond to changes. Now it is done electronically.
Masthead:- Details of publisher and editorial staff usually printed on the contents page.
Matt art:- A coated printing paper with a dull surface.
Measure:- Denotes column width, expressed in picas.
Mechanical binding:- A method of binding which secures pre-trimmed leaves by the insertion of wire or plastic spirals through holes drilled in the binding edge.
Megabyte (M, MB):- One million bytes.
Memory:- The part of the computer which stores information for immediate access. .
Metallic ink:- Printing inks which produce an effect gold, silver, bronze or metallic colors.
MG (Machine glazed):- Paper with a high gloss finish on one side only.
Mock-up:- Or layout dummy. The rough visual of a publication or design.
Modern:- Refers to type styles introduced towards the end of the 19th century. Times roman is a good example of modern type.
Moire pattern:- The result of superimposing half-tone screens at the wrong angle thereby giving a chequered effect on the printed half-tone.
Monitor calibration:- The process of correcting the color settings of a monitor to match selected colors of printed output.
Monochrome:- A black and white display with no gray tones.
Monospace:- A font in which all characters occupy the same amount of horizontal width regardless of the character.
Montage:- A single image formed from the assembling of several images.
MS (Manuscript):- The original written or typewritten work of an author submitted for publication.
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Newsprint:- Unsized, low quality, absorbent paper used for printing newspapers.
Nipping:- A stage in book binding where after sewing the sheets are pressed to expel air.
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Object-oriented:- A type of drawing that defines an image mathematically rather than as pixels in a bitmap (vector-based as opposed to rasterized).
Oblique stroke:- (/)  Offprint a run-on or reprint of an article first published in a magazine or journal.
Offset:- A type of printing press or printing method. The printing press uses paper in sheets of a standard size (offset paper). Economical only for short printing runs.
Offset Plates:- A method in which the plate or cylinder transfers an ink image to an offset or transfer roller, which then transfers the image to stock.
Offset Printing:- The most common commercial printing technology in use today. Offset printing applies layers of ink on the page. For each layer, a reverse image of the page is placed on a roller in the printing press. Ink is applied to the non-image areas on the roller, so that as the roller presses against paper moving through the press, the proper image is left on the paper.
Oldstyle (US):- A style of type characterized by stressed strokes and triangular serifs. An example of an oldstyle face is Garamond.
On-Demand Printing:- Commercial-quality printing produced as needed with turnarounds of a few hours or less. Often associated with very short runs of a hundred or fewer pieces. A newer class of device - the direct digital printing system - is usually associated with on-demand printing.
Onion skin:- A translucent lightweight paper used in air mail stationery.
Opacity:- (1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents printing on one side from showing through the other side. (2) Characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.
Open Prepress Interface (OPI):- A set of PostScript language comments for defining and specifying the placement of images on an electronic page layout.
Optical center:- A point above the true center of the page which will not appear 'low' as the geometric center does.
Orphan:- Line of type on its own at the top or bottom of a page.
OU Red:- PMS 200 or 201. (See Pantone Matching System) A dark scarlet red.
Outline:- A typeface in which the characters are formed with only the outline defined rather than from solid strokes.
Output:- Computer image transferred to color proof, paper, film, or temporary plate material by an imagesetter device.
Over Run:- Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy varies in the printing industry.
Overprinting:- Printing over an area already printed. Contrast with knockout.
Overs:- Additional paper required to compensate for spoilage in printing. Also used to refer to a quantity produced above the number of copies ordered.
Overstrike:- A method used in word processing to produce a character not in the typeface by superimposing two separate characters, e.g. $ using s and l.
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Page Numbering:- The cover of a “self-cover” magazine is page 1, inside the cover is page 2, and so on. The cover of a “plus-cover” magazine is not numbered, page 1 is the first interior page. See Plus Cover.
Page proof:- Initial output to proofing printer. The best stage for identifying and correcting mistakes, typos and other problems.
Page-Description Language (PDL):- Software that resides within a printer and defines how elements such as text and graphics appear on the printed page. PostScript is the industry-standard page-description language.
PageMaker:- A common desktop publishing software.
Pages:- Each face of a sheet of paper. The cover (of a “self-cover” magazine) is page 1, inside the cover is page 2, and so on. See Plus Cover.
Pages Per Minute (PPM):- The maximum speed of the printer's marking engine as rated by the manufacturer.
Pagination:- The numbering of pages in a book.
Pantone Matching System:- A registered name for an ink color matching system, usually abbreviated PMS.
Paragraph mark:- A type symbol used to denote the start of a paragraph.
Parallel Fold:- Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will produce 6 panels.
Paste up:- The various elements of a layout mounted in position on pasteboard to form camera-ready artwork. Now seldom used in the era of desktop publishing.
PDF:- Short for Portable Document Format. PDF is a digital file format that was designed to make it possible for viewers to open and view on many computer platforms (Macintosh, Windows or UNIX) without cross-platform problems.
Perf:- Short for Perforation or Perforating. A process that places tiny holes in paper making it easier to tear out of a magazine. An example would be around a Business Reply card.
Perfect Bound:- To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover.
Perfector:- A printing press which prints both sides of the paper at one pass through the machine.
Pi fonts:- Characters not usually included in a font, but which are added specially. Examples of these are timetable symbols and mathematical signs.
Pica:- A printing industry unit of measurement. There are 12 points to a pica. Originally, one pica was approximately 0.166in. Now, in the era of computerization, a pica is 1/6 of an inch.
Picking:- The effect of ink being too tacky and lifting fibers out of the paper. Shows up as small white dots on areas of solid color.
Pigment:- Particles that absorb and reflect light and appear colored to our eyes; the substance that gives ink its color.
Pixel:- The smallest dot that can be produced on a computer screen.
Plate::- The part of a printing press that transfers the ink onto the paper.
Plus Cover/Self Cover:- Plus Cover doesn’t include the cover in the page count (number of pages plus the cover). Self Cover refers to a job that the cover is included in the page count. Example: 16 pages self cover has 16 total pages. 16 pages plus cover has 20 total pages (16 interior pages + 4 cover pages). Reason for Plus Cover: a magazine cover that requires a process that the interior doesn’t (heaver paper or UV coating). It must be printed at a different time and possibly another location. The term tells us that there is an added step to the process.
PMS or Pantone:- Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors, not PMS Colors.
Point:- In measuring a paper's caliper, one point equals a thousandth of an inch. In typography, it is the smallest unit of measurement used principally for designating type size, one point approximating 1/72 of an inch and 12 points equaling one pica.
Poly Bagging:- A clear, sealed plastic bag that the magazine is placed into. This protects the magazine in the mail and allows other items, such as catalogs or CDs, to be included with the mailing.
Portrait:- An upright image or page where the height is greater than the width.
Positive:- A true photographic image of the original made on paper or film.
Posterization:- The deliberate constraint of a gradation into visible steps as a special effect.
PostScript:- A page description language developed by Adobe Systems. Widely supported by both hardware and software vendors it represents the current 'standard' in the market.
Postscripting:- The term for saving magazine pages in a format that is optimal for imagesetters.
Pounds (lbs.)/ Paper Weight:- A very old and confusing system of measuring paper thickness. The higher the number the thicker the paper. Newspapers are usually 45-50 lb. and business cards are roughly 80-100 lb. Magazine are usually in between… 60-80 lb. The measurement is based on the weight of a ream of 25″ x 38″ (a standard size) paper. Paper weight needs to be a consideration: heavier/thicker paper feels richer and is more durable but is more expensive and can increase mailing/shipping costs. To make things confusing there is text and cover weights of paper. When talking about interior pages of a magazine, it is assumed to be text weight unless otherwise stated. In an attempt to end all the confusion, another measuring system has been devised that measures the actual paper thickness (in points) but it has been slow to catch on.
Prepress:- The steps required to turn a design into final form, ready for final printing on a printing press. May include preflight, color correction, color trapping, imposition, color separation, proofing, and imagesetting.
Press proof:- A copy obtained from inked type, plate, block or screen for checking purposes; a reasonably accurate sample of how a finished piece is intended to look. Also, to check for consistency and accuracy.
Primary colors:- Cyan, magenta and yellow. These three colors when mixed together with black will produce a reasonable reproduction of all other colors.
Printer Control Language (PCL):- A set of printer commands, developed by Hewlett-Packard, that provide access to printer features. PCL printers are compatible only with MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows systems and do not offer the complete device independence and range of choice available with Adobe PostScript printers, or the performance and features available with Adobe PrintGear printers.
Printer Driver:- Software that serves as the communication link between applications and the page-description language used by printers.
Process colors:- See four color process.
Production coordinator:- A person who follows the print job through every step of the process and in general acts as a liaison between Printing Services and the customer.
Progressives:- Color proofs taken at each stage of printing showing each color printed singly and then superimposed on the preceding color.
Proof:- Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.
Proofreading:- To read and mark typesetting corrections in written matter.
Proofreading marks:- A standard set of signs and symbols used in copy preparation and to indicate corrections on proofs. Marks are placed both in the text and in the margin with a line connecting them.
Proportional spacing:- A method of spacing whereby each character is spaced to accommodate the varying widths of letters or figures, so increasing readability. Books and magazines are set proportionally spaced, typewritten documents are generally monospaced.
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QuarkXpress:- The industry standard typesetting and page layout program. Highly recommended.
QuickDraw:- The display language interface for Apple Macintosh systems. QuickDraw printers are compatible only with Macintosh systems and do not offer the performance and features available with Adobe PrintGear printers.
Quire:- 1/20th of a ream (25 sheets).
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Rag paper:- High quality stationery made from cotton rags.
Ragged Right:- Typesetting style that is characterized by lines that end in unequal length, usually lined up flush on one side or the other example - flush left/ragged right.
RAM:- Random access memory, measured in megabytes. The higher the number, the more space available for storing data, such as downloaded fonts.
Raster Image Processor (RIP):- The hardware and/or software that translates data from PostScript and other high-level languages into dots or pixels in a printer or imagesetter.
Rasterization:- The process of converting mathematical and digital information (vector commands) into a series of dots by an output device.
Reader’s Spreads/Printer’s Spreads:- Reader’s spreads are pages built in the computer the way the reader will view the magazine: cover, then pages 2 and 3 together facing each other, 4 and 5 facing each other, etc. Most softwares refer to reader’s spreads as “facing pages.” In the “old days” magazines had to be built in printer’s spreads (page one next to page 32, page 31 next to page 2, page 3 next to 30, etc.). The process was confusing especially when building pages where art crossed the gutter. Modern imposition software automatically converts reader’s spreads to printer’s spreads.
Ream:- 500 sheets of paper.
Recto:- A right hand book page (usually odd numbered), more significant than the reverse side, which is called the verso.
Register:- The correct positioning of an image especially when printing one color on another.
Registration marks:- Small cross-hairs on film used in the alignment of negatives.
Resolution:- The measurement used in typesetting to express quality of output. Measured in dots per inch, the greater the number of dots, the smoother and cleaner appearance the character/image will have. Photographs need to be scanned at a resolution of 300 dots per inch. Screen resolution is 72 dots per inch and something that looks wonderful on your computer screen or on the Internet will look terrible when printed.
Retouching:- A means of altering artwork or color separations to correct faults or enhance the image.
Reverse out:- To reproduce as a white image out of a solid background.
RGB:- Computer monitors make all their colors using three (light) colors; Red, Green, and Blue. Use these colors can produce most all the colors your eye can see. This “color space” is used when producing anything that is viewed through your monitor, NOT printed. Printing inks cannot come close to printing this range (see CMYK).
Rich Black:- Rich black is an ink mixture of solid black over one or more of the other CMYK colors, resulting in a darker tone than black ink alone generates in a printing process. A typical rich black mixture might be 100% black, 50% of each of the other three inks.
Right reading:- A positive or negative which reads from left to right.
Roman:- Type which has vertical stems as distinct from italics or oblique which are set at angles.
Rosette:- The pattern created when all four color halftone screens are placed at the traditional angles.
Rotary press:- A web or reel fed printing press which uses a curved printing plate mounted on the plate cylinder.
Rough:- A preliminary sketch of a proposed design (see also, "Dummy" and "Layout dummy."  Royal a size of printing paper 20in x 25in (508 x 635mm).
Ruler:- Rulers displayed on the screen that show measures in inches, picas or millimeters.
Runaround (see also Text wrap):- The ability within a program to run text around a graphic image within a document, without the need to adjust each line manually.
Running head:- A line of type at the top of a page which repeats a heading.
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S/S (Same size):- An instruction to reproduce to the same size as the original.
Saddle stitching:- A method of binding where the folded pages are stitched through the spine from the outside, using wire staples. Usually limited to 64 pages size.
Sans serif:- A typeface that has no serifs (small strokes at the end of main stroke of the character). Helvetica, Geneva, and Arial are examples of sans-serif fonts.
Saturation:- The amount of gray in a color. The higher the gray content, the lower the saturation.
Scaling:- A means of calculating the amount of enlargement or reduction necessary to accommodate a photograph within the area of a design.
Scanner:- A digitizing device using light sensitivity to translate a picture or typed text into a pattern of dots which can be understood and stored by a computer.
Scanning:- Using a scanner to digitize images to be manipulated, output or stored on a computer.
Score:- To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease.
Screen angles:- The angles used to offset the different films in process color separations. Proper screen angles are critical to minimize more patterns.
Screen frequency:- The number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.
Section:- A printed sheet folded to make a multiple of pages.
Security paper:- Paper incorporating special features (dyes, watermarks etc.) for use on checks.
Self Cover:- Self Cover refers to a job that the cover is included in the page count. Plus Cover doesn’t include the cover in the page count (number of pages plus the cover). Example: 16 pages self cover has 16 total pages. 16 pages plus cover has 20 total pages (16 interior pages + 4 cover pages).
Serif:- A small cross stroke at the end of the main stroke of the letter.
Set off:- The accidental transfer of the printed image from one sheet to the back of another.
Set solid:- Type set without leading (line spacing) between the lines. Type is often set with extra space; e.g. 9 point set on 10 point.
Sheet:- A single piece of paper. In poster work refers to the number of Double Crown sets in a full size poster.
Sheet-feed or Sheet-fed Press:- A printing method in which the printing press uses large, pre-cut paper. Compared to web printing it is a much slower process and is much more expensive for larger runs like magazines.
Sheetwise:- A method of printing a section. Half the pages from a section are imposed and printed. The remaining half of the pages are then printed on the other side of the sheet.
Sherpa:- The final proof stage before printing. This full color output is generated digitally and has replaced the Blueline Side stabbed or stitched - the folded sections of a book are stabbed through with wire staples at the binding edge, prior to the covers being drawn on. Side heading a subheading set flush into the text at the left edge.
Show-through:- See opacity.
Sidebar:- A vertical bar positioned usually on the right hand side of the screen.
Signature:- A letter or figure printed on the first page of each section of a book and used as a guide when collating and binding.
Sixteen sheet:- A poster size measuring 120in x 80in (3050mm x 2030mm).
Size:- A solution based on starch or casein which is added to the paper to reduce ink absorbency.
Slurring:- A smearing of the image, caused by paper slipping during the impression stage.
Small caps:- A set of capital letters which are smaller than standard and are equal in size to the lower case letters for that type size.
Soft back/cover:- A book bound with a paper back cover.
Soft dot:- A type of dot in a halftone screen whose edge is not smoothly circular. This can create a fuzzier image. Contrast with hard dot.
Soft or discretionary hyphen:- A specially coded hyphen which is only displayed when formatting of the hyphenated word puts it at the end of a line.
Spell check:- A facility contained in word processing and page makeup programs to enable a spelling error check to be carried out. Should be used as an adjunct to proofreading, not a replacement of it.
Spine:- The binding edge at the back of a book.
Spiral/Coil Bind:- To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind.
Spot Color:- An ink color, the ink is usually Pantone Matching System (PMS) consisting of named or numbered colors. PMS is generally accepted throughout the printing and graphic arts industry as the standard.
SRA:- A paper size in the series of ISO international paper sizes slightly larger than the A series allowing the printer extra space to bleed.
Stat:- Photostat copy.
Stem:- The main vertical stroke making up a type character.
Stet:- Used in proof correction work to cancel a previous correction. From the Latin; 'let it stand'.
Stitching or Saddle Stitch:- A binding method. The industry term for stapling along the fold.
Stochastic Screening:- A method that uses a pseudo-random dot size and/or frequency to create halftoned images, but without the visible regularity in the dot patterns found in traditional screening.
Stock Art:- Copyright-free photos.
Strawboard:- A thicker board made from straw pulp, used in bookwork and in the making of envelopes and cartons. Not suitable for printing.
Strike-through:- The effect of ink soaking through the printed sheet.
Stripping:- The preparation and assembling of film prior to platemaking.
Style sheet:- A collection of tags specifying page layout styles, paragraph settings and type specifications which can be set up by the user and saved for use in other documents.
Subscript:- The small characters set below the normal letters or figures.
Subtractive primaries:- The inks (cyan, magenta, and yellow) used in process-color printing to create different colors. In contrast to additive primaries, these produce darker colors when combined.
Supercalendered paper:- A smooth finished paper with a polished appearance, produced by rolling the paper between calenders. Examples of this are high gloss and art papers.
Superscript:- The small characters set above the normal letters or figures.
Surprint (US):- (see Overprinting) printing over a previously printed area of either text or graphics.
Swash letters:- Italic characters with extra flourishes used at the beginning of chapters.
Swatch:- A color sample.
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Tabloid:- 11" x 17" - a page half the size of a broadsheet, or twice the size of a sheet of standard typing paper.
Tabular setting:- Text set in columns such as timetables.
Tags:- The various formats which make up a style sheet- paragraph settings, margins and columns, page layouts, hyphenation and justification, widow and orphan control and automatic section numbering.
Template:- A standard layout usually containing basic details of the page dimensions.
Text:- The written or printed material which forms the main body of a publication.
Text type:- Typefaces used for the main text of written material. Generally no larger than 14 point in size.
Text wrap:- See Runaround.
Thin space:- The thinnest space normally used to separate words.
Thirty two sheet:- A poster size measuring 120in x 160in (3048mm x 4064mm).
TIFF:- A common format for scanned photographs.
Tint:- The effect of adding white to a solid color or of screening a solid area.
Tip in:- The separate insertion of a single page into a book either during or after binding by pasting one edge.
Transmissive densitometer:- Instrument used to measure the coverage of exposed film.
Transparency:- A full color photographically produced image on transparent film.
Trapping:- The process of creating an overlap between abutting colors to compensate for imprecisions in the printing press.
Trim:- The cutting of the finished product to the correct size. Marks are incorporated on the printed sheet to show where the trimming is to be made.
Trim Size:- The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).
TrueType Fonts:- Scalable typefaces for Windows and Macintosh software.
Twin wire:- Paper which has an identical smooth finish on both sides.
Type 1 Fonts:- Adobe's industry-standard outline font technology that enables type to be scaled to any size while staying sharp and clear. More than 20,000 Type 1 typefaces are available from vendors worldwide.
Typeface:- A complete set of characters forming a family in a particular design or style.
Typo (US):- An abbreviation for typographical error. An error in the typeset copy.
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U & lc:- An abbreviation for UPPER and lower case.
UCR:- Undercolor Removal. A technique for reducing the amount of magenta, yellow, and cyan in neutral areas and replacing them with an appropriate amount of black.
Uncoated Paper:- The paper doesn’t have a coating to make it shiny or keep the ink from soaking in. Copier paper and newspapers use uncoated paper. Fully recyclable.
Universal Copyright Convention (UCC):- Gives protection to authors or originators of text, photographs or illustrations etc., to prevent use without permission or acknowledgment. The publication should carry the copyright mark, the name of the originator and the year of publication.
UV Coating:-  Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light. Used only on plus cover magazines and gives a very high-end finish to a publication.
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Varnish:- A shiny coating put on some high-image magazines. Although not as heavy or shiny as UV, Varnish is a cheaper alternative as it is “printed on” as just another ink color, not a separate process like UV.
Varnishing:- A finishing process whereby a transparent varnish is applied over the printed sheet to produce a glossy finish.
Vellum:- The treated skin of a calf used as a writing material. The name is also used to describe a thick creamy book paper.
Vertical justification:- The ability to adjust the interline spacing (leading) and manipulation of text in fine increments to make columns and pages end at the same point on a page.
Vignette:- A small illustration in a book not enclosed in a definite border.
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Watermark:- An impression incorporated in the paper making process showing the name of the paper and/or the company logo.
Web:- A continuous roll of printing paper used on web-fed presses.
Weight:- The degree of boldness or thickness of a letter or font.
WF:- An abbreviation for 'wrong fount'. Used when correcting proofs to indicate where a character is in the wrong typeface.
Widow:- A single word left on the last line of a paragraph which falls at the top of a page.
Wire:- The wire mesh used at the wet end of the paper making process. The wire determines the textures of the paper.
Wire stitching:- See saddle or side stitching.
With the Grain:- Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to against the grain.
Woodfree paper:- Made from chemical pulp only with size added. Supplied calendered or supercalendered.
Word break:- The division of a word at the end of a line.
Work and tumble:- A method of printing where pages are again imposed together. The sheet is then printed on one side with the sheet being turned or tumbled from front to rear to print the opposite side.
Work and turn:- A method of printing where pages are imposed in one form or assembled on one film. One side is then printed and the sheet is then turned over and printed from the other edge using the same form. The finished sheet is then cut to produce two complete copies.
Wove:- A finely textured paper without visible wire marks.
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Xerography:- A photocopying/printing process in which the image is formed using the electrostatic charge principle. The toner replaces ink and can be dry or liquid. Once formed, the image is sealed by heat.
X-height:- The height of a letter excluding the ascenders and descenders; e.g. 'x', which is also height of the main body.
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